In American criminal law, there is a concept known as mens rea. This idea underpins the notion of what's more commonly referred to as criminal intent. It covers a wide range of issues that speak to whether a person knew they were committing a crime and what their intentions were at the time. Depending upon the nature of the charges you're facing, a lack of criminal intent may represent one of the better defenses to present.
A Culpable State of Mind
Within the widely known idea that a prosecutor has an obligation to prove their case beyond a reasonable doubt is the notion that a person's guilt hinges on a particular state of mind. There are four types of culpability, and they may overlap in some cases.
This is when a person knowingly and deliberately commits a crime. For example, if someone posts on Facebook that they're going to "get" someone else and then physically assaults that person the next day, it speaks to a culpable state of mind. A reasonable person would conclude that the defendant threatened a person and then followed through on that threat.
Knowing that a particular action is wrong and could lead to harm generally makes it more wrong in the eyes of the law. A criminal defense lawyer presenting a case might present evidence that their client wasn't clear on what the law was in a specific situation. An unlawful entry case, for example, might hinge on the question of whether there was sufficient notice that someone wasn't supposed to enter a building.
Moving ahead with actions that are dangerous when it's possible that harm could come from them is usually seen as reckless. From a legal perspective, recklessness is distinct from intent because the defendant didn't set out to cause harm. The distinction between many types of manslaughter and murder cases, for example, is often whether a party was simply reckless or meant to kill someone.
Being negligent is generally considered the lowest form of culpability. It's similar to recklessness in the sense that the person didn't intend harm. What distinguishes the two is that negligence is a failure to take a particular set of actions that a reasonable person would expect you to take. A building owner not fixing a walkway after being notified might lead to criminal negligence charges if people are hurt or killed using the walkway.
To learn more, contact your local criminal defense law office.